Recent Publications


Balanoff AM, Bever GS, Colbert MW, et al. (2016) Best practices for digitally constructing endocranial casts: Examples from birds and their dinosaurian relatives. J Anat 229, 173–190. [doi: 10.1111/joa.12378]

Clarke JA, Chatterjee S, Li Z, Riede, T, Agnolin F, Goller F, Isasi MP, Martinioni DR, Mussel FJ, Novas FE (2016) Fossil evidence of the avian vocal organ from the Mesozoic. Nature 538, 502–505. [doi: 10.1038/nature19852]

Crica LE , Wengenroth J, Tiainen H, Ionita M, Haugen HJ (2016) Enhanced X-ray absorption for micro-CT analysis of low density polymers. J Biomat Sci 27, 805–823. [doi: 10.1080/09205063.2016.1152856]

Danner RM, Gulson-Castillo ER, James HF, Dzielski SA, Frank III DC, Sibbald ET, Winkler DW (2016) Habitat-specific divergence of air conditioning structures in bird bills. Auk 134, 65–75. [doi: 10.1642/AUK-16-107.1]

Gignac PM, Kley NK, Clarke JA, Colbert MW, Morhardt AC, Cerio D, Cost IN, Cox PG, Daza JD, Early CM, Echols MS, Henkelman RM, Herdina AN, Holliday CM, Li Z, Mahlow K, Merchant S, Müller J, Orsbon CP, Paluh DJ, Thies ML, Tsai HP, Witmer LM (2016) Diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT): an emerging tool for rapid, high-resolution, 3-D imaging of metazoan soft tissues. J Anat 228, 889–909. [doi: 10.1111/joa.12449]

Girard R, Zeineddine HA, Orsbon C, Tan H, Moore T, Hobson N, Shenkar R, Lightle R, Shi C, Fam MD, Cao Y, Shen L, Neander AI, Rorrer A, Gallione C, Tang AT, Kahn ML, Marchuk DA, Luo Z-X, Awad IA (2016) Micro-computed tomography in murine models of cerebral cavernous malformations as a paradigm for brain disease. J Neurosci Meth 271, 14–24. [doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2016.06.021]

Gold MEL, Shulz D, Budassi M, Vaska P, Gignac PM, Norell MA (2016) Flying starlings and PET lend insights on the evolution of volant dinosaurs. Curr Biol 26, R265–R267. [doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2016.02.025]

Hughes DF, Gignac PM, Walker EM, Martinez A, Negishi K, Lieb CS, Greenbaum E, Khan AM (2016) Rescuing perishable neuroanatomical information from a threatened biodiversity hotspot: Remote field methods for brain tissue preservation validated by semi-quantitative cytoarchitectonic analysis, immunohistochemistry, and iodine-enhanced X-ray microcomputed tomography. PLOS One 11(5): e0155824. [doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155824]

Li Z,  Clarke JA (2016) The craniolingual morphology of waterfowl (Aves, Anseriformes) and its relationship with feeding mode revealed through contrast-enhanced X-ray computed tomography and 2-D morphometrics. J Evol Biol 43, 12–25. [doi: doi:10.1007/s11692-015-9345-4]

Li Z, Ketcham RA, Yan F, Maisano JA, Clarke JA (2016) Comparison and evaluation of the effectiveness of two approaches of diffusible iodine-based contrast- enhanced computed tomography (diceCT) for avian cephalic material. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 00B:1–11. [doi:10.1002/jez.b.22692]


Akkari N, Enghoff H, Metscher BD (2015) A New Dimension in Documenting New Species: High-Detail Imaging for Myriapod Taxonomy and First 3D Cybertype of a New Millipede Species (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae). PLoS ONE 10(8): e0135243. [doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0135243]

Anderson R, Maga AM. (2015) A novel procedure for rapid imaging of adult mouse brains with microCT using iodine-based contrast. PLOS One 10(11): e0142974. [doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142974]

Dougherty LR, Rahman IA, Burdfield-Steel ER, et al. (2015) Experimental reduction of intromittent organ length reduces male reproductive success in a bug. Proc Roy Soc Lond B 282: 20150724. [doi: 10.1098/rspb.2015.0724]

Herdina AN, Kelly DA, Jahelkova H, et al. (2015) Testing hypotheses of bat baculum function with 3-D models derived from micro-CT. J Anat 226, 229–235. [doi: 10.1111/joa.12274]

Herdina AN, Plenk Jr. H, Benda P, et al. (2015) Correlative 3D-imaging of Pipistrellus penis micromorphology: Validating quantitative microCT images with undecalcified serial ground section histomorphology. J Morphol 276, 695–706. [doi: 10.1002/jmor.20372]

Hopkins TM, Hellman AM, Liggett JA, et al. (2015) Combining micro-computed tomography with histology to analyze biomedical implants for peripheral nerve repair. J Neurosci Methods 255, 122–130.[doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2015.08.016]

Hutchinson JC, Arthurs OJ, Ashworth MT, et al. (2015) Clinical utility of postmortem micro-computed tomography of the fetal heart: diagnostic imaging versus macroscopic dissection. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 47, 58–64[doi: 10.1002/uog.15764]

Kleinteich T, Gorb SN (2015) Frog tongue acts as muscle-powered adhesive tape. R Soc open sci 2: 150333. [doi: 10.1098/ros.150333]

Kleinteich T, Gorb SN (2015) The diversity of sticky frog tongues. Bruker microCT User Mtg Abstracts 2015-18, 1–4.

Li Z, Clarke JA, Ketcham RA, et al. (2015) An investigation into the efficacy and mechanism of contrast-enhanced X-ray computed tomography utilizing iodine for large specimens through experimental and simulation approaches. BMC Phys 15: 5. [doi: 10.1186/s12899-015-0019-3]

Schmidbaur H, Keklikoglou K, Metscher BD, et al. (2015) Exploring methods to remove iodine and phosphotungstic acid stains from zoological specimens. Bruker microCT User Mtg Abstracts 2015-21, 1–8.

Silva JMdS, Zanette I, Noël PB, et al. (2015) Three-dimensional non-destructive soft-tissue visualization with X-ray staining micro-tomography. Sci Rep 5: 14088. [doi: 10.1038/srep14088]

Sombke A, Lipke E, Michalik, et al. (2015) Potential and limitations of X-ray micro-computed tomography in arthropod neuroanatomy: a methodological and comparative survey. J Comp Neurol 523, 1281–1295. [doi: 10.1002/cne.23741] 

Tsai HP, Holliday CM (2015) Articular soft tissue anatomy of the archosaur hip joint: structural homology and functional implications. J Morphol 276, 601–630. [doi: 10.1002/jmor.20360] 


Buytaert J, De Greef D, Aerts P, et al. (2014) Volume shrinkage of bone, brain and muscle tissue in sample preparation for micro-CT and light sheet florescence microscopy (LSFM). Microsc. Microanal. 20, 1208–1217. [doi: 10.1017/S1431927614001329] 

Cox PG, Faulkes CG (2014) Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia). PeerJ 2, e448. [doi: 10.7717/peerj.448]

Descamps E, Sochacka A, Kegel BD, et al. (2014) Soft tissue discrimination with contrast agents using micro-CT scanning. Belg J Zool 144, 20–40.

Fernández R, Kvist S, Lenihan J, et al. (2014) Sine systemate chaos? A versatile tool for earthworm taxonomy: non-destructive imaging of freshly fixed and museum specimens using micro-computed tomography. PLoS ONE 9, e96617. [doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096617]

Gignac PM, Kley NJ (2014) Iodine-enhanced micro-CT imaging: methodological refinements for the study of soft-tissue anatomy of post-embryonic vertebrates. J Exp Zool Part B (Mol Dev Evol) 322B, 166–176. [doi: 10.1002/jez.b.22561]

Kleinteich T, Conway KW, Gorb SN, et al. (2014) What’s inside a fishy suction cup?. Bruker microCT User Mtg Abstracts 2014-14, 1–4.

Lenihan J, Kvist S, Fernández R, et al. (2014) A dataset comprising four micro-computed tomography scans of freshly fixed and museum earthworm specimens. GigaScience. 3, 6. [doi: 10.1186/2047-217X-3-6] 

Razi T, Niknami M, Ghazani FA (2014) Relationship between Hounsfield Unit in CT scan and grayscale in CBCT. J Dent Res Dent Clinics Dent Prospects 8, 107–110. [doi: 10.5681/joddd.2014.019]

Naha PC, Zaki AA, Hecht E, et al. (2014) Dextran coated bismuth–iron oxide nanohybrid contrast agents for computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. J Mater Chem B 2, 8239–8248. [doi: 10.1039/C4TB01159G]

Neu CP, Genin GM (2014) Handbook of Imaging in Biological Mechanics. Boca Raton: CRC Press. [ISBN: 1466588136]

Thomsen HS, Webb JAW (2014) Contrast media safety issues and ESUR guidelines. Third edition. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [ISBN: 9783642367236]

Vickerton P, Jarvis J, Gallagher JA, et al. (2014) Morphological and histological adaptation of muscle and bone to loading induced by repetitive activation of muscle. Proc Roy Soc B 281: 20140786. [doi: 10.1098/rspb.2014.0786]

Wong MD, Maezawa Y, Lerch JP, et al. (2014) Automated pipeline for anatomical phenotyping of mouse embryos using micro-CT. Development 141, 2533–2541. [doi: 10.1242/dev.107722]


Aslanidi OV, Nikolaidou T, Zhao J, et al. (2013) Application of micro-computed tomography with iodine staining to cardiac imaging, segmentation, and computation model development. IEEE Trans Med Imag 32, 8–17. [doi: 10.1109/TMI.2012.2209183]

Baverstock H, Jeffery NS, Cobb SN (2013) The morphology of the mouse masticatory musculature. J Anat 223, 46–60. [doi: 10.1111/joa.12059]

Düring DN, Ziegler A, Thompson CK, et al. (2013) The songbird syrinx morphome: a three-dimensional, high‐resolution, interactive morphological map of the zebra finch vocal organ. BMC Biol 11, 1. [doi: 10.1186/1741-7007-11-1]

Exbrayat JM (2013) Histochemical and Cytochemical Methods of Visualization. Boca Raton: CRC Press. [ISBN: 9781439822227]

Faulwetter S, Vasileiadou A, Kouratoras M, et al. (2013) Micro-computed tomography: introducing new dimensions to taxonomy. ZooKeys 263, 1–45. [doi: 10.3897/zookeys.263.4261]

George ID, Holliday CM (2013) Trigeminal nerve morphology in Alligator mississippiensis and its significance for crocodyliform facial sensation and evolution. Anat Rec 296, 670–680. [doi: 10.1002/ar.22666]

Holliday CM, Tsai HP, Skiljan RJ, et al. (2013) A 3-D interactive model and atlas of the jaw musculature of Alligator mississippiensis. PLoS ONE 8, e62806. [doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062806]

Lautenschlager S, Bright JA, Rayfield EJ (2013) Digital dissection—using contrast-enhanced computed tomography scanning to elucidate hard- and soft-tissue anatomy of the Common Buzzard Buteo buteo. J Anat 224, 412–431. [doi: 10.1111/joa.12153]

Li X, Anton N, Zuber G, et al. (2013) Iodinated α-tocopherol nano-emulsions as non-toxic contrast agents for preclinical X-ray imaging. Biomaterials 34, 481–491. [doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.09.026]

Metscher BD (2013) Biological applications of X-ray microtomography: imaging micro-anatomy, molecular expression and organismal diversity. Micros Anal 27, 13–16.

Pauwels E, Van Loo E, Cornillie P, et al. (2013) An exploratory study of contrast agents for soft tissue visualization by means of high resolution X-ray computed tomography imaging. J Microsc 250, 21–31. [doi: 10.1111/jmi.12013]

Tahara R, Larson HCE (2013) Quantitative analysis of microscopic X-ray computed tomography imaging: Japanese quail embryonic soft tissue with iodine staining. J Anat 223, 297–310. [doi: 10.1111/joa.12081] 

Vickerton P, Jarvis J, Jeffery NS (2013) Concentration-dependent specimen shrinkage in iodine-enhanced microCT. J Anat 223, 185–193. [doi: 10.1111/joa.12068]

Wong MD, Dorr AE, Walls JR, et al. (2013) A novel 3-D mouse embryo atlas based on micro-CT. Development 129, 3248–3256. [doi: 10.1242/dev.082016]

Wong MD, Spring S, Henkelman RM (2013) Structural stabilization of tissue for embryo phenotyping using micro-CT with iodine staining. PLoS ONE 8, e84321. [doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084321]


Cox PG, Rayfield EJ, Fagan MJ, et al. (2012) Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS ONE 7, e36299. [doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036299] 

Hautier L, Lebrun R, Cox PG (2012) Patterns of covariation in the masticatory apparatus of hystricognathous rodents: implications for evolution and diversification. J Morphol 273, 1319–1337. [doi: 10.1002/jmor.20061]

Mizutani R, Suzuki Y (2012) X-ray microtomography in biology. Micron 43, 104–115. [doi: 10.1016/j.micron.2011.10.002]

Stephenson RS, Boyett MR, Hart G, et al. (2012) Contrast enhanced micro‐computed tomography resolves the 3-dimensional morphology of the cardiac conduction system in mammalian hearts. PLoS ONE 7, e35299. [doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035299]

Valiyaparambil JV, Yamany I, Ortiz D, et al. (2012) Bone quality evaluation: comparison of cone beam computed tomography and subjective surgical assessment. Intl J Oral Maxillofac Implants 27, 1271–1277.


Cox PG, Fagan MJ, Rayfield EJ, et al. (2011) Finite element modeling of squirrel, guinea pig and rat skulls: using geometric morphometrics to assess sensitivity. J Anat 219, 696–709. [doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2011.01436.x]

Cox PG, Jeffery N (2011) Reviewing the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature in squirrels, rats, and guinea pigs with contrast-enhanced micro-CT. Anat Rec 294, 915–928. [doi: 10.1002/ar.21381]

Hallouard F, Anton N, Zuber G, et al. (2011) Radiopaque iodinated nano-emulsions for preclinical X-ray imaging. RSC Adv 1, 792–801. [doi: 10.1039/C1RA00048A]

Jeffery NS, Stephenson RS, Gallagher JA, et al. (2011) Micro-computed tomography with iodine staining resolves the arrangement of muscle fibres. J Biomech 44, 189–192. [doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.08.027]

Tsai HP, Holliday CM (2011) Ontogeny of the alligator cartilago transiliens and its significance for sauropsid jaw muscle evolution. PLoS ONE 6, e24935. [doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024935]


Degenhardt K, Wright AC, Horng D, et al. (2010) Rapid 3-D phenotyping of cardiovascular development in mouse embryos by micro-CT with iodine staining. Circ Cardio Imaging 3, 314–322. [doi: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.109.918482]

Herdina AN, Herzig-Straschil B, Hilgers H, et al. (2010) Histomorphology of the penis bone (baculum) in the gray long-eared bat Pleocotus austriacus (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae). Anat Rec 293, 1248–1258. [doi: 10.1002/ar.21148]

Mah P, Reeves TE, McDavid WD (2010) Deriving Hounsfield Units using grey levels in cone beam computed tomography. Dentomaxillofacial Radiol 39, 323–335. [doi: 10.1259/dmfr/19603304]

Tobita K, Liu X, Lo CW (2010) Imaging modalities to assess structural birth defects in mutant mouse models. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 90, 176–184. [doi: 10.1002/bdrc.20187]


Metscher BD (2009) Micro-CT for comparative morphology: simple staining methods allow high-contrast 3D imaging of diverse non-mineralized animal tissues. BMC Physiol 9, 11. [doi: 10.1186/1472-6793-9-11] 

Metscher BD (2009) Micro-CT for developmental biology: a versatile tool for high-contrast 3-D imaging at histological resolutions. Dev Dyn 238, 632–640. [doi: 10.1002/dvdy.21857]


de Crespigny, A, Bou-Reslan, H, Nishimura, MC, et al. (2008). 3D micro-CT imaging of the postmortem brain. J Neurosci Meth 171, 207–213. [doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2008.03.006] 


Cooper RA (2007) Iodine revisited. Intl Wound J 4: 124–137. [doi: 10.1111/j.1742-481X.2007.00314.x]


Webb WR, Brant W, Major, N (2005) Fundamentals of body CT. Third edition. Philadelphia: Elseiver. [ISBN: 1416000305]


Kondo H, Fukuda H, Ono H, et al. (2001) Sodium thiosulfate solution spray for relief of irritation caused by Lugol’s stain in chromoendoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 53, 199–202. [doi: 10.1067/mge.2001.110730]

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