“I2KI-formalin (iodine-potassium iodine-formalin) treatment can obscure the natural X-ray contrast of the bone due to neighboring soft-tissues during staining of avian cephalic material. By contrast, we found the I2E (iodine-ethanol) treatment can increase the X-ray opacity of not only soft tissues (e.g., muscles), but also the bone. Mathematical simulations suggest that remarkably different results from I2E and I2KI-formalin staining are due to different partition coefficients and retardation factors of tissues, fixation effects, and distinct iodine diffusion and sorption patterns. We also found a clear positive relationship between glycogen concentration and grayscale values measured within muscle, epithelia, nervous tissues, and glands regardless of the staining solution used.”
–Lead Author, Zhiheng Li
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